John Ronald Reuel Tolkien and geopolitics door Alex FANTALOV op Globalization
"The Lord of the Ring" is connected with the main events of 20 centuries (the First World War, Russian revolution, the fascism, the Second World War, Cold war). And John Ronald Reuel Tolkien states on West-European, to be exact, Anglo-Saxon geopolitical positions ("The Lord of the Ring", consisting of three books, has left in 1955 - the heat of Cold War).
Let's remind dear readers, that the classical geopolitics will consist of two antagonistic streams – Anglo-Saxon and German. The largest representatives of the first were Englishman Mackinder and American Mahan. The second direction was developed by Germans Ratzel and Haushofer. However in the basic principles both these currents coincide, treating historical process, as struggle of the Sea and the Land. Only Anglo-Saxons, naturally, cost on the party of the Sea, and Germans (in post-war years and the Frenchmen) – the Land.
The land usually is called as geopolicies "Heartland". It is meant as median Eurasia. Perimeter of Eurasia (the coastal country) names "Rimland". It is considered, that struggle between a sea/oceanic (Atlantic) civilization and Heartland goes in territory Rim land (it is recollected «1984» Orwell).
With localization of the Sea are Anglo-Saxon countries easier. Under Heartland different political subjects – and understood the Central Europe Germany, both Soviet Union. We can see the project of ‘the Euro-Soviet empire from Dublin up to Vladivostok’, and De Gaulle's words about Europe ‘from Atlantic up to Ural’.
In the sensational performance of 1980 Ronald Reagan has named the USSR ‘Empire of evil’. The American president, probably, has not read Tolkien (not that age - all the same eighty years!). But to generation tokenisms belonged it speech writer which hoped radical-conservative ideas "to pack" into the form attractive to university America (not sympathized to Reagan). So words of the American president have fallen to the prepared ground.
Certainly, any serious work of art covers some plans. Such plans: mystical, social, gender, etc. are available and in the well-known trilogy. But now speech is about political aspect.
Geopolitics of “The Lord of the Rings” is absolutely precise. West Kings fighting against of the East - to ‘gloomy Mordor’. Antagonists are divided with the River (whether Danube, whether Volga).
And where only did not search for this ill-starred Mordor: both in the Balkans, and in Turkey and even in the Central Asia. Frequently saw it in Germany. At despite of frightening efficiency of the German development model in 19 – 20 centuries I cannot agree with it.
I admit quite, that as a push for creation of some images of the trilogy the First World War could serve. But Germany neither in England, nor in America never named the East. About it and about Austria-Hungary spoke as about ‘the Central powers’, taking place between the West and the East. There are not the powerful opponent of Mordor from the East in Tolkien‘s books. On the contrary, all time you read about "to darkness from the East".
Further, the East and the West are divided with the Great river - Anduin. Rhein dividing France and Germany can be and it was possible to name the Great river (with a huge stretch). Yes here the trouble, it flows from the south not the north, while Anduin - from the north on the south, similarly to Danube or Volga. It is possible, certainly, Germany, with its Schwarzwald ("the Black wood"). But also here we see only time haven Sauron which original dwelling was far in the east.
Certainly, on fronts of First world mass-media Antant named German the soldier "Hunns". It has been connected to imprudence of Kaiser Wilhelm which, once sending armies on suppression anticolonial "boxing revolt" in China, has called " to remind there cruelty Hunns". Soldiers of other European countries behaved no more humanely, but were covered with reasoning on light of progress. And the name was sticked to Germans. Thus it is necessary to remember, that in the European tradition "gunny" were regarded negatively (some exception can be considered epos about Nibelung in which basis the epos East Gots has been put, long time politically and cultural connected with Hunns).
The reason of an uncooperative altitude to "to darkness from the East" in the European culture sometimes name "a patrimonial trauma" western civilization. Just during an epoch of Great resettlement there was Hunns intrusion to Europe. And already in 9 - 10 centuries there was Hungarians invasion. There was even a special pray in which asked "to save from an arrow of the Hungarian and a sword of the Norman". However any negativism to Scandinavian countries was not kept. And Hungarians have organically come in the Western world after christening. But "the darkness from the East" has remained.
Thus, newspapers of German Kaiser named armies of Russian Tsar Nicolas II (almost absolute German, who was married to the absolute German princess!) Scythians (while Englishmen and the Frenchmen called Germans "Hunns"!).
Well, Valinor (taking place behind ocean where will emigrate elves) is USA. But presence of "the third force" – Saruman’s Isengard is curious (funny, that Saruman has been seized by will Sauron by means palantir that very much reminding a modern computer). Saruman plays "Hitler's" role here, like independent, but in practice involuntarily playing on a hand "Enemy". The treatment of a historical role of the Third Reich which frequently give in the West (in the East she long time is those was opposite). Pertinently here to recollect and ‘a bewitching voice” Saruman most experienced in media-technologies.
On the other hand, in applied "Chronicles" the King-magician, the master of northern kingdom Angmar (that from of geographical and from the historical look corresponds to a Reich in geography) acts also. Besides magic Odin/Vodan was engaged - the main god of the German-Scandinavian world.
The stronghold Gondor can correspond to Hungary (resisting to Turks) or Austria. But the name is borrowed from the Ethiopian geography (Ethiopia itself long years existed as the isolated mountain fortress reflecting invasions from the East).
And, at last, a parody to collective farms which fluent Saruman, together with the Orcs and Wormtongue organizes in Hobbit land.
Notice expensive readers that in all above-stated are not present estimated judgments. The given analysis is in a vein of the concept of human rights on the information and only opens some aspects of model of world Tolkien, which and so, in general, lay on a surface. The world represents very complex ‘system of systems’ and we are capable to capture our reason and feelings only limited sector of its entire spectrum. Completeness of knowledge is accessible only to the God.